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nick smanunair
country India
languages English, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil


Experience: 7 years

About me




Historical resources help us  to learn more about past societies and the development of the human race. Over 99% of the history of humanity has occurred within prehistoric cultures, who did not make use of writing, thereby not leaving written records about themselves that we can study today. The word archeology refers the study of  human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes.

Archeology can be develop with the following historic resources like Inscriptions, Numismatics, Monuments, Ancient Historical writings, Foreign Accounts, Oral Tradition, The Proto-History Period etc...


Inscriptions were commonly incised on stone or marble, on metal, or on wood , or on terracotta.


  • Religious and Didactic inscriptions :- Relates to religious and Moral justice


  • Elogistic Inscriptions :- Refers related names of king ,geneology,political or administrative succes stories,unilateral tieups etc..


  • Dedicative Inscriptions :- Details of buildings, caves etc.. dedicated to saints etc.  


  • Commemorative Inscriptions :- Incriptions describes the details such as birth,death,other main incidents etc.. of a memmorable person or persons.


Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. While numismatists are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods. Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious". Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, and gems. Every coin tells a story – often a fascinating story of political struggles and wars, hard times or affluence. Coins are very much a reflection of the prevailing cultural and aesthetic values when they were minted, so if you’re already a history buff, coins can add depth and breadth to your knowledge. People who are interested in genealogy and researching their own family history often find that learning about coins enhances their understanding of the times in which their ancestors lived.




A monument is a type of structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event, or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or as an example of historic architecture. The term 'monument' is often applied to buildings or structures that are considered examples of important architectural and/or cultural heritage. This includes Temples, chrches, mosques, palace, forts etc..


Ancient Historical writings

Ancient Biographies. Autobiographies, Diaries, Official or Unofficial letters etc.. are also part of historical resources for the study of past.


Foreign Accounts

Foreign accounts are very important while studying history of a country. This help us to know the views of foreign people about the country. A precise account of interior India is first obtained from an account by Megasthenes, Seleucus' envoy to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, which has been preserved only in fragments quoted by subsequent classical writers like Arrian, Starbo and Justin. These fragments, when read together, furnish valuabl~ information not only about the adminIstration but als01bout social classes and economic activities in the MauryaIi period. Chinese accounts have proved a valuable source for information on the Gupta period and the years immediately following the end of Gupta rule. The Chinese travellers, Fa­hsien (Record of the Buddhist Countries) and Hsuan Tsang (Buddhist Records of the Western World) who came to India to visit Buddhist shrines and study Buddhism, describe the social, economic and religious conditions of the country in the fourth-fifth and seventh centuries respectively. Hwuili's Life of Hsuan Tsang, and Itsing's A Record of the Buddhistic Religion as Practised in India and Malay Archipelago, which refers to Sri Gupta, are valuable for studying North India in the 7th century AD.

Oral Tradition

Most Oral traditions are not included in historic books, but for recreation of past we must know about their cultures,traditions etc..

The Proto-History Period

Proto-history refers to a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. Proto-historic may also refer to the transition period between the advent of literacy in a society and the writings of the first historians.This is the history of mankind who lives in caves and uses stone as tools.The study of those tools such as arrows,knives etc can give the proof of those periods.